Arterial blood gas interpretation

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As long as a patient has healthy lungs, these processes will maintain the normal acid-base balance. According to the principle of electrical neutrality, this difference is balanced by the weak acids and CO2.

It is clear that such information has the potential to be invaluable in the treatment of a wide range of patients.

arterial blood gas analysis ppt

However, the understanding of ABGs and their interpretation can sometimes be very confusing and also an arduous task. Hydrogen ion concentration The hydrogen ion concentration pH provides information on acid-base balance. This would reduce the amount of carbonic acid and resume the ratio.

arterial blood gas analysis pdf

In clinical practice, however, unless there is evidence to suggest otherwise, 10kPa should be the lowest pO2 level accepted before others are alerted.

The expected PaCO2 can be derived three ways.

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Increased temperature decreases gas solubility and falsely increases the gas tensions. In order to be removed from the body it is transported to the lungs and then exhaled. Metabolic disorders are reflected by a change in [HCO3-] Step 4A: pH elevated or decreased pH is measured directly using an optical absorbance technique. If pO2 and SaO2 values are decreased, the patient has hypoxaemia. This would result in the amount of H2CO3 falling and the pH of the blood rising. Samples should be free of air bubbles that allow equilibration of gases between the bubble and the blood sample, thereby lowering the measured gas tensions. This can result from hypoventilation or a mismatch of ventilation and perfusion. Disorders of acid—base balance can create complications in many disease states, and occasionally the abnormality may be so severe so as to become a life-threatening risk factor. The alveolar—arterial difference, or gradient, can be estimated only if the oxygen fraction of inspired air FiO2, usually 0. The patient would have respiratory alkalosis, another acid-base imbalance. Saturation SaO2 measures how well the haemoglobin in the blood is saturated. The opposite is true for lowering temperature. It is also necessary to consider this value in respect of any previous history, as a patient with chronic lung disease may be perfectly able to function with a low pO2 level Parsons and Heffner,
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Interpretation of Arterial Blood Gases