Cities in North America, because they reached the peak of industrial activity even later than their counterparts in Europe, attained even higher densities and did so somewhat later. Gutmann A, Thompson D, editors.
One of the major environmental problems associated with sprawl is land losshabitat loss and subsequent reduction in biodiversity. In his remarkable work Anticipations, an attempt to predict future trends, British author H.
The built environment: designing communities to promote physical activity in children. This trend has produced large metropolitan areas with low population densities, interconnected by roads. Local political institutions and smart growth: an empirical study of the politics of compact development.
Presently, there are large areas of high-quality farmland in the path of development throughout the country. Figure 2.
For the wealthy, accessibility was usually not a problem because they had horses and carriages; for the poor there was only walking. American public policy analyst Randal O'Toole of the Cato Institutea libertarian think tankhas argued that sprawl, thanks to the automobile, gave rise to affordable suburban neighborhoods for middle class and lower class individuals, including non-whites.
Developers that follow smart-growth principles can be deemed eligible for reduced fees that help offset the costs of smart-growth development, such as environmental impact fees.